Investigation of vortex wakes behind various aircraft, especially behind wide bodied and heavy cargo ones, is of both scientific and practical in terest. The vortex wakes shed from the wing's trailing edge are long lived and attenuate only atdistances of10-12kmbehindthe wake generating aircraft. The encounter of other aircraft with the vortex wake of a heavy aircraft is open to catastrophic hazards. For example, air refueling is adangerous operationpartly due to thepossibility of the receiver aircraft's encountering the trailing wake of the tanker aircraft. It is very important to know the behavior of vortex wakes of aircraft during theirtakeoff andlanding operations whenthe wakes canpropagate over the airport's ground surface and be a serious hazard to other depart ing or arriving aircraft. This knowledge can help in enhancing safety of aircraft's movements in the terminal areas of congested airports where the threat of vortex encounters limits passenger throughput. Theoreticalinvestigations of aircraft vortex wakes arebeingintensively performedinthe major aviationnations.Usedforthispurpose are various methods for mathematical modeling of turbulent flows: direct numerical simulation based on the Navier-Stokes equations, large eddy simulation using the Navier-Stokes equations in combination with subrigid scale modeling, simulation based on the Reynolds equations closed with a differential turbulence model. These approaches are widely used in works of Russian and other countries' scientists. It should be emphasized that the experiments in wind tunnels and studies of natural vortex wakes behind heavy and light aircraft in flight experiments are equally important.
This final volume in the subseries is a coda to the 1731 campaigns. Paid for by Walpole's administration and postdating Francklin's conviction for seditious libel, the pamphlet is a point-by-point rebuttal of the "Craftsman"'s agenda, blistering and confident.
Devi Prasad (1921--2011), India's pioneering artist-potter, visionary educationist and pacifist, joined Santiniketan, India's premier art school in 1938 when founder Rabindranath Tagore was siill involved with the institution. At Nandalal Bose's suggestion and following a correspondence with Gandhi in 1944 lie joined Sevagrara, Gandhi's ashram, as Art Teacher, where he taught for nearly twenty years. His political consciousness saw him participate actively in the Quit India Movement in 1942 and in social reforms such as Vinoba Bhave's Bhoodan---the land gift movement of the 1940s and 1950s.